Interview: Judy Baker

Video Tabs

(00:00)
We’ve learned a lot from experiences around the world.
我们从世界各国学到了许多经验。
 
(00:05)
We know that growth is very important to lifting people out of poverty.
我们深知,经济增长对于帮助人民脱离贫困而言意义重大。
 
(00:10)
Urbanization brings such growth; it brings lots of opportunities, jobs and the concentration of people allow for easier access to services. So that’s very important.
而城市化则能够带来经济增长,创造更多机会,增加就业岗位,将人群集中起来,让人们更为便捷地享受公共服务。因此城市化非常重要。
 
(00:24)
Other policies that are very important are insuring that there’s some kind of safety net to lift people out of poverty. Of course, investing in human capital and education and health are very, very important.
其他重要政策则能够确保安全保障网络的顺利建成,以帮助人民脱离贫困。当然,对人力资本、教育及健康方面的投资也不可或缺。
 
(00:38)
We’ve done research around the world looking at urbanization, urban policies, urban poverty.
我们已在全球范围内,就城市化、城市政策以及城市贫困等方面展开了研究。
 
(00:45)
And there are a lot of important lessons and specific experiences that we’re hoping to share with China.
通过研究,我们学到了大量重要知识,也掌握了许多特殊经验,在此我们希望能够与中国分享。
 
(00:52)
There are a range of programs out there that have worked well, some not so well. Generally we know in many countries that the urban poor live in slums.
当前世界,一系列城市化项目已经卓有成效,但有些则不尽如人意。我们知道,很多国家的城市贫民一般生活在贫民窟里。
 
(01:04)
So improving living in slums … the conditions I think worldwide are pretty horrific.
因此我们需要改善贫民窟居民的生存状况……全球各地贫民窟居民的生存环境非常糟糕,骇人听闻。
 
(01:10)
People don’t have get access to services, they live in squalor, they’re often in precarious areas so people are very prone to flooding and the negative effects of pollution.
这些贫民无法享受公共服务,居所肮脏不堪。他们的生活环境常常充满危险,且更容易遭受洪水、污染的侵袭。
 
(01:27)
So a very important approach we’ve done is slum upgrading, where we come in with a basic package of services, working with local governments to improve living conditions.
因此,我们采取的重要举措之一便是改造贫民窟。我们提供了一套公共服务基础方案,并与当地政府合作,共同改善贫民窟居民的生活环境。
 
(01:41)
So that would include roads, improving drinking water, improving access to day-care centers and health care and education and basic improvements to homes so that the living conditions are improved over time.
这套基础方案包括修筑道路、改善饮用水质量、建立更多日托中心、让这些贫民享受更好的医疗与教育,并对贫民窟房屋进行基础性修缮,以逐步改善贫民窟居民的生活环境。
 
(02:00)
There are a range of other types of programs as well.
此外还有一些其他类型的项目。
 
(02:04)
There are conditional cash transfer programs that give people the small amount of money they might need for daily needs, but that are conditional on certain behavioral changes, such as ensuring that the child goes to school or the child will have regular health check ups and it tries to reinforce that kind of behavior.
与此同时,我们也提供了一些有条件的现金转移支付计划,通过发放小额贷款满足贫民的日常所需。但发放的贷款是有条件的,即必须用于特定事项,例如确保孩子就学,或为孩子进行定期体检。我们希望能够通过该计划强化人们在这些方面的认识。
 
(02:25)
There are also important investments in education and health for older people as well that are important.
此外,我们同样在老年人教育及健康方面进行了重要投资。
 
(02:37)
We know people come to cities. They’re going to come.
我们深知将会有越来越多的人进入城市。
 
(02:40)
So policies that don’t promote urbanization, that try to keep people in rural areas don’t work.
一些政策非但对于城市化进程毫无促进作用,反而试图将人们隔离在城市之外。这种政策一定行不通。
 
(02:46)
Urbanization is a very important part of the story of economic growth. There are a lot of opportunities in the cities.
城市化是经济发展进程中的重要一环。大量机遇存在于城市之中。
 
(02:53)
So the important thing that is a shift for many countries, maybe not so much China but for many other countries, is to think proactively about urbanization as China is doing.
对于许多国家而言,城市化是一次意义重大的转换过程。这些国家应该学习中国的做法,即对城市化持更为积极的态度。
 
(03:07)
And that’s about building affordable housing, about ensuring the infrastructure, the roads, the water networks, the electricity networks are there, so that people, when they come, there are places to go and they don’t end up in slums that then cost much more to go back and fix later.
具体而言,便是建设保障性住房,完善道路及水电网络等基础设施,使得人们来到城市便有容身之地,而不至于落魄到在贫民窟居住。事前犯错,事后弥补,代价只会更大。
 
(03:25)
So this is an important lesson that we’re learning about how to do this effectively, about how to plan for it and think proactively.
如何对城市化进行有效规划、有效实施并始终积极应对,便是我们得到的重要启示。
 
(03:33)
Unfortunately, many, many countries have not done that and we see the effects all over the world.
遗憾的是,仍有许多国家未能有效地推进城市化,而其不良影响在全球各地随处可见。