Interview: Jouko Sarvi

Video Tabs

Are students prepared for today’s job market and for the future? 
学生们是否为今天的就业市场及未来做好了准备?
 
Yes, and no. It depends on what angle you are looking at it. 
是,也不是。这取决于你看待这个问题的角度。
 
But as the labor market evolves more rapidly obviously there is a gap between the skills of graduates and what the labor market needs. 
但是显然劳动力市场发展更加迅速,因此毕业生所掌握的技能与劳动力市场需求之间存在鸿沟。
 
And there is also a gap in the aspirations of the youths vis-a-vis what the future holds. 
青年人的抱负与未来之间也存在鸿沟。
 
So therefore increasingly it is important to focus on what the worth of youth is, and how we can enhance and improve their skills for the labor market and for their future. 
所以,我们需要关注青年人的价值所在,关注我们如何针对劳动力市场与未来需求加强并提高青年人的技能。这一点正变得愈加重要。
 
There has always been the debate whose responsibility the training is. 
关于培训责任由谁承担的问题,一直有争论。
 
And of course, on the job training, when a student or graduate has been employed, is as important as the training the student has received initially in the training institution. 
当然,学生或毕业生受雇后所接受的在职培训和他们最初在培训机构所接受的培训一样重要。
 
So the role of private training providers is becoming increasingly important. 
因此,私立培训机构的作用正变得日益重要。
 
Quite often, the government or the government training institutions try to do a dual role: preparing regulations and policy for training, and also providing the training. 
政府或政府培训机构常常尝试着扮演双重角色:培训规定与政策的制定者,以及培训服务的提供者。
 
This is increasingly becoming an arrangement which is not sustainable. 
而这一制度不太可能持续下去。
 
Increasingly the trend is that the training is shifting to private training providers while the government needs to concentrate on the role of providing an enabling environment through better regulations and quality control assurance of the training provided.
培训正在转而由私立培训机构负责。与此同时,政府需要将其职能重点放在通过完善规章制度提供有利的培训环境以及为所提供培训提供质量控制保证。
 
In terms of details of training programs, what needs to be strengthened, is to make them more competency based, and define the competency more accurately. 
就培训项目的细节而言,需强化能力基础在培训中的作用,并对能力进行准确定义。
 
Quite often the mistake is that countries aim to define and prepare a national competency framework for all skill areas and for all industry areas. 
通常,各国所犯的错误便在于希望为所有技术领域和所有行业部门制定一个统一的国家能力框架。
 
It is quite a challenging task to do as one step. 
步调一致是极具挑战的。
 
It’s better to start from the private industry areas and together between the government and the private sector to find a consensus what are the competencies required for those industry areas and how those competencies can be received, acquired through training. 
最好能够从私人行业开始。随后在政府与私人部门间就有关相关行业领域所需能力以及如何通过培训习得所需能力达成一致。
 
And then after that initial step to expand to other industry areas. 
随后,在完成初步举措后,再延伸到其它行业部门。
 
From a government perspective, matching skills with jobs is not always easy. 
对于政府而言,劳动者的技能与职业需求匹配并不容易。
 
But obviously there is a need and way to improve labor market information systems and the projection of what kind of skills are needed for the future. 
不过很明显,有必要也有方法改进劳动力市场的信息体系,以及对未来所需技能的规划。
 
The basis for this is of course that there is a clear economic vision for the country, to which to link human resource development needs and then also concrete training programs.
当然,实现上述目标的基础是国家能够拥有一个清晰的经济愿景,将人力资源发展需求以及培训项目与之相整合。
 
Knowledge sharing in vocation training and education overall is very important. 
所有职业培训与教育领域内的知识分享都是非常重要的。
 
And it is important to support knowledge exchange between countries, south-south cooperation, north-south cooperation and so forth.
还需要为各国间的知识交流、南南合作,以及南北合作等提供支持。
 
I always try to emphasize the need to avoid the concept “best practice.” 
我自始至终都在强调要避免“最佳实践”这一概念。
 
There are always good practices around to discuss and share knowledge about, 
常常有很多来自各方的优秀实践供大家探讨与分享。
 
and once a good practice is adapted correctly to certain circumstances, it can become a best practice in those circumstances. 
一旦某一良好实践在特定环境中得到良好应用,就可以成为这些情况下的最佳实践。
 
It’s not feasible to adopt directly a model from one country to another. 
但是直接将一种模式从一国嫁接到另一国并不可行。
 
Knowledge and models China can consider is somewhat challenging given the huge labor market in China, and the labor force challenges in a country like China. 
考虑到中国的巨大劳动力市场,以及所面临的劳动力挑战,中国可考虑的知识与模式多少具有挑战性。
 
But obviously China has had very good progress in recent years in the manufacturing area and needs to expand more the services sector, especially the modern services sector, which requires higher-order skills. 
但是很明显,近年来中国在制造业领域取得了长足的进步,并且需要将这一趋势扩展到服务业领域,尤其是需要高层次技能的现代服务业领域。
 
It is becoming increasingly obvious that once the modern services sector is expanding and there is a skilled workforce for that area, that will also benefit manufacturing. 
有一点愈加明显,那便是一旦现代服务部门得到发展,并拥有与该部门发展相适应的技能型人才,制造业便会从中受益。
 
Because the manufacturing industry is increasingly becoming technology-driven and you also need high-order skills there. 
因为制造业正在逐步转换为技术驱动型,需要高层次技能。
 
In the past, occupations in manufacturing were mainly categorized as “white collar” and “blue collar”: managers and those who were working on the manufacturing chain. 
在过去,制造业的职业分为“白领”与“蓝领”,即管理人员与工作在制造链上的员工。
 
Increasingly, there are also now so-called “gray-collar” workers, or knowledge workers needed in manufacturing. 
到如今,逐渐出现了“灰领”工人,也就是制造业所需的知识性工人。
 
And here is the link between the service sector higher-order skills and manufacturing higher-order skills. 
这就是服务业高层次技能与制造业高层次技能之间的关系。
 
Improving in tandem expanding service sector and human resources for the service sector and also for more higher-order manufacturing industries is one model that I believe would benefit China. 
我认为,为了服务业与更高层次制造业的发展,扩大服务业与人力资源发展,这是一种会令中国受益的模式。 
 
One of the challenges in China and in East and Southeast Asia in particular in human resource development is also the aging population. 
中国、东亚以及东南亚在人力资源发展方面所面临的挑战之一也是人口老龄化问题。
 
The workforce is declining, 
劳动力数量正在减少。
 
on the other hand, the aging workforce remains in good health and they still want to be active in creating services for that part of the population 
一方面,老龄人口的状况仍旧良好;他们仍旧希望积极为这部分人口创造服务。
 
and skills for that kind of service industry is something which the future holds as a challenge for this part of Asia.
而该类型服务业发展所需技能便是上述亚洲国家将在未来面对的一大挑战。