Interview: Gordon Hughes

Video Tabs

(00:00)
If we did not do anything about climate change, the damage that it causes would accelerate, become worse and worse as we go on through the current century and becomes much higher in 2100 than it is in 2050. 
若我们仍坐视不理,对气候变化听之任之,那么气候变化带来的危害将在本世纪愈演愈烈。无论是2050年,还是2100年,结果只会不断恶化。
 
(00:09)
That’s why we need to mitigate because you cannot just rely on adaptation to remove those kinds of causes.

我们无法单纯依靠地球自适性来解决环境问题,环境保护措施也同样不可或缺。
 
(00:28)
Therefore, the key element of the analysis is to say how we can combine adaptation with mitigation to get the minimum damage caused by climate change.
因此,如何结合环境自适性、通过人为环保措施减少气候变化影响,是此次分析工作的关键。
 
(00:41)
The way which the study is done is to look for various options from those cost almost nothing to those are much more expensive.

本次调查旨在识别在零成本和高额成本区间的可选环保方案。
 
(00:50)
The total possibility is to reduce emission by 50% up through about 2030, though some case is quite a high cost.

目标是在截至2030年,减少50%温室气体排放,尽管这个目标的实现可能需要付出高额成本代价。
 
(00:59)
But a lot of reductions can be achieved at either no cost at all or cost of less than 50 or 100 dollars per ton of carbon dioxide, which is easily affordable for the countries that we are looking at and will make a very large contribution to climate change in future.
但多数情况下,减排目标可以通过零成本,或仅仅50至100美元/吨(二氧化碳)的低成本来实现。就亚行援助国而言,这样的费率均在可承受范围内。此外,减排将大大减少其对未来气候变化的影响。
 
(01:18)
The industries which you can do most in terms of abatement in the next 10 or 20 years is power sector and secondly also the transport sector in both cases by using fuel differently and by using different fuels, particularly by using more gas and by using the fuels called low gas, much more efficiently at present.
未来10到20年,最具减排潜力的行业,一是电力行业,二是交通运输业。减排方法包括提高汽油使用率或使用其他替代燃料,特别是采用天然气或低气型高能燃料。
 
(01:47)
Those typically have a low cost and make a big contribution to emissions from particularly China but also for other countries in the region.

使用可替代或高能燃料不但可降低成本,而且能大幅减少包括中国等亚洲国家在内的温室气体排放。
 
(01:57)
The relationship between air quality and the emissions of carbon dioxide is very strong particularly in transport but also in some other sectors.

二氧化碳排放直接影响地区空气质量。而二氧化碳气体排放又以交通业为最多。
 
(02:18)
And therefore reducing emission of carbon dioxide should make a substantial contribution to China’s goal over the next 10 years or so of greatly improving its urban air quality specially in places like Beijing but throughout the country as well.
因此,减少二氧化碳排放将在很大程度上改善未来十年,北京及其他诸多中国城市的空气质量。
 
(02:25)
Climate proofing is the process of preparing infrastructure for weather conditions as well as climate conditions that are likely to exist not today but in 20 or 40 years time.

气候防护指的是建立满足未来20年甚至40年天气或气候条件的基础设施的过程。
 
(02:47)
That is a process that requires a great deal of detailed planning. It depends on changing the way engineers behave and therefore it is as much a matter of education as it is just spending money.
这个过程需要大量细致的规划。气候防护的成败,很大程度上取决于项目工程师。因此,气候防护不只是简单的投资行为,对人才的培养、教育更加重要。
 
(03:01)
Don’t build things which you know are going to get damaged by future climate conditions.

绝不能在易受未来气候条件影响的区域建造气候防护设施。
 
(03:07)
And the most obvious thing that we have learned in OCD is to avoid building in flood plain, in areas that going in future to be highly vulnerable to flood caused by change of precipitation and extreme storm and the like.

多年项目经验告诉我们,不应在易受洪水灾害影响的平原或地区兴建设施。
 
(03:25)
The coastal adaptation is a consequence of the likelihood that the sea level will rise and also associated with that the storm will be worse and therefore there will be higher storm surges.

沿海适应性是海平面上升的直接产物。海平面上升直接导致频繁、剧烈的海洋风暴。
 
(03:40)
By building dykes and particularly sea walls, it will be possible to protect against the damage caused by sea level rise and the cost of doing so is very much cheaper than the cost of just allowing the damage to occur.
海堤在很大程度上削弱了海平面上升带来的灾害性损失。修建海堤的成本远比不作为、让灾难发生而造成的损失要低。
 
(03:57)
There is an enormous value to begin from comparing circumstances in different countries and then bring in the knowledge and the lessons that have been learned in the different countries and the regions together.

以国情为基础,统筹规划,将各地的实践经验或知识在其他地区推广,这样的项目执行方式有巨大的潜在价值。
 
(04:15)
At the margin, the costs of mitigation are much cheaper than they are in, for example, Japan and Korea.
比如,中国的环境保护成本远比日本、韩国低。
 
(04:25)
That means if we were to have a training arrangement or if we have some other exchange arrangement, we could reduce the cost of meeting a given total for the region as a whole more cheaply in effect by putting more of burden on China cause it will be compensated by the other countries.
也就是说,通过重点推进中国试点工作,不但降低了亚洲地区整体试点成本,而且最大化了试点价值,因为中国试点经验可广泛推广至亚洲其他国家。
 
(04:45)
And training scheme such as in Europe or other arrangement would have that effect and could potentially save up to 25%. It is a cost of achieving the particular goal we were talking about earlier.  

这种方式同样适用欧洲地区。在实现上述目标的同时,成本也减少了25%。
 
(05:00)
A region like East Asia which is very large region, very important. One can learn a great deal from other parts of the world with their experiments because it can contribute a great deal to other parts of the world by essentially devising their own way of cooperation which might be in turn copied by Bhutan by other countries, including by Europe and the United States.

东亚地区幅员辽阔,对世界影响深远。具有本国特色的合作方式可能同样适用于不丹及其他国家,如欧洲、美国,而这样的经验复制将让诸多国家受益。
 
(05:28)
So cooperation on both sides is essential, both to learn from and to provide lessons for the rest of the world.
因此,包括互通有无、分享经验在内的多边合作举足轻重。
 
(05:36)
Doing nothing we all agree is not an option but doing something needs to go beyond simply reducing green house gas emission. 
放任自由、袖手旁观不能解决问题。除减少温室气体排放外,我们还有其他更多领域的工作需要开展。
 
(05:47)
We need to do whole lot of very detailed practical studies on the adaptation front as well.

在环境适应性领域,我们还需要进行更多、更细化的实用性研究。
 
(05:55)
And the more we work to help countries do that, the better it will be for all of us.
与其他国家在实用研究上的合作、协助,最终将使所有人受益。