Interview: Benjamin Barratt

Video Tabs

(00:00)
Air pollution is a very complicated subject. 
空气污染是一个非常复杂的课题。
 
(00:04)
But we need to understand it fully if we are to have efficient and effective control mechanisms. 
但我们只有充分地了解它,才能建立起有效的控制机制。
 
(00:08)
People often see air pollution as being an environmental issue, but it is not. 
人们通常把空气污染定义为环境问题,但实则不然。
 
(00:14)
It’s a public health issue. The air pollution directly affects our health.
这是一个公共健康问题。空气污染直接影响我们的健康。
 
(00:19)
And it’s not just our lungs; it’s not just people with breathing difficulties. 
不仅会影响到我们的肺部还有正常的呼吸。
 
(00:24)
Air pollution is now thought to affect our heart and cause heart attacks. 
甚至有观点认为,空气污染会引发心脏病。
 
(00:29)
It can also get into our brain, through our blood strains, and have all sorts of surprising medical impacts that we are only just discovering. 
它还可以通过我们的血液系统进入到大脑。而这些健康问题只是空气污染危害的冰山一角。
 
(00:38)
So the impact of air pollution is really quite broad, right through from birth to old age. 
由此看出,空气污染对人一生健康的影响十分广泛。
 
(00:45)
There is strong evidence that the development of a child’s lung is restricted by air pollution and that’s something even if they move to an area that’s much cleaner, their lungs will still be small than they would do if they have grown up in a clean environment. 
有充分的证据表明,空气污染会阻碍孩子肺部的正常发育。即便是搬到一个更为干净的地方生活,其肺部仍小于在清洁环境中长大的孩子的肺部。
 
(01:02)
And this is something the public has to realize. It’s not just an environmental initiative. It’s something that affects everyone’s daily lives. 
公众决不能忽视这一点。这不仅是一个环境倡议,更事关每个人的生活。
 
(01:10)
London has been struggling with air pollution issues for over sixty years now and developing countries have a lot to learn from this process. 
伦敦受空气污染影响已有六十多年之久,一路走来有着许多值得发展中国家借鉴的经验。
 
(01:18)
We’ve tried a number of different solutions, some of them more successful than others. 
我们已尝试了不同的解决方案,结果喜忧参半。
 
(01:25)
Fifty years ago, a lot of our electricity in industry was actually situated inside the city. 
五十年前,许多电力行业就坐落在城市之内。
 
(01:31)
And we relocated that away from where people live and this had great benefit. 
随后我们将它们迁离了生活区域,这带来了极大的好处。
 
(01:36)
Nowadays the problem has more to do with vehicles and cars and HTV producing the pollution. 
当前问题的根源,更多是来自于汽车和混合动力汽车的尾气排放。
 
(01:43)
The public has had a big part to play in the increase in the interests of air pollution in recent years. 
正是公众在近几年发挥的作用,使空气污染问题受到更加广泛的关注。
 
(01:49)
This is very important, because the politicians have to see that the public wants change; they want to improve their health and natural environment. 
重要的是让政客看到公众对改变的诉求。百姓渴望改善自身的健康和自然环境。
 
(01:58)
We produce a pollution forecast for the public to see what the air quality is going to be like tomorrow, and the day after. 
我们为公众开设了空气污染预报,以预测未来两日的空气质量。
 
(02:06)
The forecast depends on the weather forecast; so if the weather forecast is wrong, the air pollution forecast is wrong. 
空气预报依赖于天气预报, 如果天气预报是错误的,空气预报也会出现偏差。
 
(02:14)
Generally speaking, we can predict what air quality is going to be like about five days in advance.
总体来说,我们可以预测未来五天的空气质量状况。
 
(02:20)
This allows the public to make their own decisions to whether they should change their behavior or they should go out for a jog, whether it be school sport days, whether they should take public transport and so on. 
让公众可以更好地决定出行活动,是否还要去慢跑,是否还要参加学校运动会,是否搭乘公共交通等等。
 
(02:31)
There are three things that affect air quality in cities like Beijing. 
有三大因素影响北京的空气质量。
 
(02:36)
The first is emissions from industry along or way out the city. 
首先是城市周边的工业排放。
 
(02:41)
The second is emissions from vehicles and other sources within the city. 
二是市内车辆和其他源头的废气排放
 
(02:45)
And the third is the weather. 
第三就是天气。
 
(02:47)
These is not much you can do about weather, but the other two things are the actions you can take. 
虽然我们无法改变天气,但可以从另外两方面采取行动。
 
(02:53)
Air pollution of certain types can travel very great distances. So industry has to be moved very long away from the open centers, much further than you might think. 
特定类型的空气污染波及范围很广。所以必须将工业迁离城市中心,迁移距离可能要超过我们先前的设想。
 
(03:05)
You also need to clean up those industrial emissions and change the kind of fuel that is being burned.
还要清理工业排放,更换正在使用的燃料。
 
(03:13)
One of the things that led to the greatest improvement in air quality in London was not only moving the industry away from the urban center but also shift from coal to gas generation. 
不仅是工业的迁移帮助伦敦大大地改善了空气质量,同样重要的还有火力发电向天然气发电的过渡。
 
(03:24)
In the city itself, the fuels the vehicles burn are important. 
城市内汽车使用的燃料也很重要。
 
(03:30)
So you need good-quality clean fuel. 
所以需要高质量的清洁燃料。
 
(03:36)
The best of all, you need to try to move away from combustion, from petrol and particularly diesel into clean and more sustainable solutions.
重要的是,尽量避免使用汽油,特别是柴油,可使用清洁的可持续能源。
 
(03:44)
But ultimately, you also need to reduce the number of vehicles on the road. 
但根本还是要减少道路上的车辆。
 
(03:48)
So public transport is important. 
这样一来,公共交通显得格外重要。
 
(03:50)
The way you build your city, the access to these various parts of the city is very important. 
城市的建构方式和连接城市各区域的交通网非常重要。
 
(03:57)
The way you live in relation to the way you work; what access you have to different choices or forms of transport, all of these things are important. 
重要的是对城市内生活区与工作区进行合理规划,开发各类交通工具。
 
(04:05)
So you have to think about how a city is planned, how the population lives there and how the population want to live. 
所以要认真对待城市规划,充分考虑市民生活的现状和期望。
 
(04:14)
Again, the public is very important in this. 
再次强调,公众的力量至关重要。
 
(04:16)
They need to see that in order to improve air quality, some of it comes from themselves, their own choices. 
公众要认识到,自己的抉择对于空气质量的改善也起到重要影响。
 
(04:24)
But also the pressure they put on politicians and the people in charge, change these things. 
此外,他们还可以向政客和相关责任人施压。